In this age of rapidly evolving technology, DNA sequences can be analysed by computers, and machines can separate hundreds of proteins at once. This makes it is easy to forget that the genetic code isn’t simply a series of letters, and that proteins aren’t just what we get out of eating poultry. They are physical and chemical structures that build and care for our bodies.
The building blocks of DNA are known as nucleotides, and are comprised of three main parts: a phosphate group, a sugar, and a highly-charged unique nitrogenous base. Of the four bases, adenine (A) and guanine (G) are both purines, which consist of an aromatic ring attached to an imidazole group. The other two bases, cytosine (C) and thymine (T) are pyrimidines, made up of a single aromatic ring. It is widely known that in DNA, A pairs with T and G pairs with C, but why is this? Read more »